Public key encryption, commonly known asymmetric encryption, uses two different keys, a public key known by all and a private key known by only the sender and the receiver. Julius Caeser used a cipher to send messages that no one else could read other than the intended recipient. If we’re given 9, we can tell that the function had an input of 3, because of ³³ = 9. Assuming the individual’s private key has not been compromised, encrypting data and messages offers the following security benefits. To learn more about hash functions, I wrote a sister article which explains them here. You want a way for them to securely return your lunchbox without you knowing who took it — because that takes the pressure off of them. Let’s demonstrate the deciphering algorithm using an identity due to Euler and Fermate: This is the Euler totient function giving the number of positive integers less than n which are relatively prime to n. Relatively prime is where 2 numbers only share the factor 1 with each other. The worst part is, Bob doesn’t even like pepperoni. Let’s encrypt the word “cats”. The pizza store verifies the signature and sends 4 pepperoni pizzas to Bob. We send the pizza store our public key, but we tell them that Bob’s phone is dead and that our public key is actually Bob’s public key. The second key is called the public key. We’re also going to use much smaller numbers, so the maths isn’t as hard to read. Sometimes referred to as asymmetric cryptography, public key cryptography is . If they match, she can be sure that someone with Bob’s private key (probably Bob) sent it. When someone returns your prized lunchbox, they can leave it in this box. This is where a certification authority comes into play. While it is easy to go through one way, it is computationally infeasible to go the other way. Like above, Cocks discovered first, but he didn’t publish it. Even more so when you realise the prime numbers used are very, very large. We need to find a way to get rid of this idea of sharing keys, get rid of the idea of ‘any key can lock and unlock’, and this is where asymmetric cryptography comes in. . Alice digitally signs the encrypted message. This is often why modular arithmetic is known as a one-way function. The public key is given freely, and any party can encrypt data by using it. This way, the receiver can apply their private key and find out the AES symmetric key to decrypt the email. Because of this, public keys can be freely shared, allowing users an easy and convenient method for encrypting content and verifying digital signatures, and private keys can be kept secret, ensuring only the owners of the private keys can decrypt content and create digital signatures. Subscribe to my email list below. In public key cryptography, each user has a pair of cryptographic keys: . . Before the holiday, you give your friend the key to your door. Here, both the information receiver and the sender make use of a single key to encrypt and decrypt the message. Functions using modular arithmetic tend to perform erratically, which in turn sometimes makes them one-way functions. With a shift of 3, as seen in the image above, A becomes D, B becomes E and so on until it wraps around with X = A. The only email client (and address provider) which enables PGP by default is ProtonMail, but even then it’s only for Proton-to-Proton emails and you have to trust the company to implement it correctly. Your file has been downloaded, click here to view your file. This signing is the CA saying “this is the entities public key”. The public key is (n, e). This key is given out to everyone in the office. Public-key encryption is a cryptographic system that uses two keys — a public key known to everyone and a private or secret key known only to the recipient of the message.. … The private key is (n, d). How a communication happens with public key infrastructure? The concept of public-key cryptography evolved from an attempt to attack two of the most difficult problems associated with symmetric encryption. Since we’re using such small numbers, we have overlap. 4. With symmetric cryptography, you have one key which you use to unlock and lock things. The original message is called the plaintext and the encrypted message is called the ciphertext. Now, imagine you brought your lunch to work in a special lunchbox — the same you’ve had since nursery school. In this post, I’m going to explain public key cryptography. Certificate authorities (CA) bind a public key to a specific entity. While it is relatively easy to carry out this function, it is computationally infeasible to do the reverse of the function and find out what the keys are. However, with modular arithmetic added, it doesn’t behave sensibly. To send an encrypted message, Bob computes C = m^e mod n for message m and key e. To decrypt the message, Alice computes m = c^d mod n. Encrypting “cats” gives us 42⁷⁵ mod 35 = 7. To decrypt the sender's message, only the recipient's private key may be used. Create your free account to unlock your custom reading experience. Public-key cryptography, also called asymmetric cryptography, is a communication where people exchange messages that can only be read by one another.. Let’s go deeper into the mathematics and explore modular arithmetic. If Bob wishes to send a confidential message to Alice, Bob encrypts the message with Alice’s Public key. To create ways to communicate without third parties listening in. . The encrypted message is sent and the recipient uses his or her private key to decrypt it. In the real world, we authenticate using signatures. You can encrypt by using the function above, and it makes sense that to decrypt you just do the opposite. Unlike symmetric key algorithms that rely on one key to both encrypt and decrypt, each key performs a unique function. Below is code to generate RSA keys. Did you know you can automate the management and renewal of every certificate? Its high-scale Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and identity solutions support the billions of services, devices, people and things comprising the Internet of Everything (IoE). If you want to learn more about ASCII, check out this video. The public key cryptography is totally based on the ‘invertible mathematical’ function which makes it different from the conventional symmetric key cryptography. It is computationally easy for a sender A, knowing the public key and the message to be encrypted M, to generate the corresponding ciphertext: C=EKU b (M). A key pair consist of two keys mathematically tied to each other. This function is easy to reverse. It’s the remainder of dividing. Although these can be forged, you can authenticate using a biometric scanner, but your fingerprints can be lifted and copied. . GlobalSign is the leading provider of trusted identity and security solutions enabling businesses, large enterprises, cloud service providers and IoT innovators around the world to secure online communications, manage millions of verified digital identities and automate authentication and encryption. Private key is a type of lock used with a decryption algorithm to convert the received message back to the original message. . As we saw earlier, if we take $5$ and $7$ and multiply them together, we get: In order for Bob to send Alice a message, he encrypts the message using Alice’s public key. Let’s set d to 29, just so we don’t have this overlap. This seems pretty magical at first, but in the end of blog post you will understand how this works. We’ll talk more about modular on in this article. In short, the main difference between a public key vs private key is that one encrypts … Then to send a message m, Bob computes c=m^e (mod N) and sends it to Alice and Alice decrypts the message using her private key d with m=c^d (mod N). You want to invite your friend around to look after your cat while you’re on the beautiful beaches ️. RSA is a one-way function. RSA is designed so the person who knows P and Q (the two prime numbers that are multiplied together to give N) can decrypt the message. When Alice wants to send a confidential email to Bob, she: In total, Alice uses three keys. . Prime factorisation. These numbers are arranged in a circle, much like a clock (modular arithmetic is sometimes called clock arithmetic because of this). We create an e-mail order to a pizza shop asking for 4 pepperoni pizzas. Public Key Cryptography is based on asymmetric cryptography, so first let us talk about symmetric cryptography. The first problem is that of key distribution, which is examined in some detail in Chapter 14. Now, no one apart from you can open the box. I guess that in terms of public key cryptography identification is interpreted as digital signature. The certificate containing the entities public key is digitally signed by the CA. . This entity provides proof of identity to the CA, the CA then creates a certificate binding the entity to its public key. . When Alice want’s Bob’s public key, she gets Bob’s certificate. When x is 6, it is equal to 1. Let’s look at how this works mathematically. . We sign this email with our private key. You can use a passcode, but again much like how Caeser’s cipher and its single key is useless, authentication methods that use single keys aren’t as perfect. It’s easy to multiply two prime numbers together, but it’s incredibly hard to find out what prime numbers were used to make that number. . The first key can only turn clockwise, from A (locked) to B (unlocked) to C (locked). That’s symmetric cryptography: you have one key, and you use it to encrypt (“lock”) and decrypt (“unlock”) your data. This is public key cryptography. It is computationally infeasible to compute the private key based on the public key. How do you tell your friend you’re using a shift of 9, for example? The keys are asymmetric, the public key is actually derived from the private key. Insert 3 and we get ³³ = 9. However, we’re using Euler’s totient function as it is what the original RSA paper used. Mathematicians have tried and failed for thousands of years to find an efficient way to factor numbers, so for now it is considered secure. When you apply the public key (K+) to the encrypted message, and then the private key (K-)to the encrypted message you get the plaintext message. You may be thinking “it’s easy to guess that 35’s prime factors are 5 and 7” and you would be right. Unfortunately, the keys everyone has also unlocks the box as well as locks it. Without this special mathematical property it wouldn’t be possible to reverse the encryption and find out the ciphertext if you know some of the numbers used. Often the easiest way to reverse modular arithmetic is to compile a table for all values of x until the right answer is found. 5 has no common factors with 24, and it is smaller than 24. It can be used to encrypt while the private key can be used to decrypt. This is called a private key. Your private key is the only one that can open it. Digital certificates are issued by entities known as Certificate Authorities (CAs). Previously we assigned a number to each letter, A = 1 and so on. Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is an encryption scheme that uses two mathematically related, but not identical, keys - a public key and a private key. Illustrate with suitable diagrams Public key is a type of lock used with an encryption algorithm to convert the message to an unreadable form. Public key cryptography was first formulated by Whitfield-Diffie or James Ellis (Ellis discovered first, but he didn’t publish it. Below is a calculator I created for turning ASCII into Binary. The public key is used to encrypt and the private key is used to decrypt. Note that the prime numbers are intentionally small for brevity. It refers to any system that uses a key pair, one for encrypting data and another one for decrypting data. You want everyone to have this key. Modular arithmetic is still defined as the remainder of division, however it can also be defined (and is more commonly defined) as a clock. You install an extraordinary lock on this box, one that has two separate keys. But, with large enough numbers it is virtually impossible to find p and q. 4. This n is special because under some circumstances n can make this one-way function reversible. If you want to learn more about the maths of RSA, I highly reccomend the readable, origianl RSA paper. Starting with the origins of cryptography, it moves on to explain cryptosystems, various traditional and modern ciphers, public key encryption, data integration, message authentication, and digital signatures. Choose e (with e < z) such that e has no common factors with z. You pick the first key and keep it to yourself. Zimmerman used RSA in PGP. Cryptography is the study of hiding information, and it is used when communicating over an untrusted medium such as internet, where information needs to be protected from other third parties. Let’s see this with an example by taking a regular function and seeing how it works when it becomes a modular arithmetic function. The problem with symmetric key cryptography is that this one key is easy to clone, it’s easy to attack your house in many different ways. Public key cryptography is actually a fairly recent creation, dating back to 1973, it uses a public/private key pair. With symmetric cryptography, everyone could open your box if they had the key. It is possible that in the future, perhaps the near future (with the invention of quantum computers) that factoring numbers becomes easy. Public-key cryptography allows the following to happen: wikia. . She then applies the CA’s public key to Bob’s certificate to get Bob’s public key. In fact, with large enough numbers multiplying p and q are essentially one way functions. The companion key is Private As shown in Figure 5.1 that each user maintains a collection of public keys obtained from others. You take the encrypted text and shift it all 25 times until you find the decrypted text. This is why we create a digest of the message and encrypt that instead to verify Bob. Then Alice checks the message Bob sent with the message she got from the encrypted message. Public key cryptography seems magical to everyone, even those who understand it. This tutorial is meant for students of computer science who aspire to learn the basics of cryptography. 3. Public key cryptography (PKC) is an encryption technique that uses a paired public and private key (or asymmetric key) algorithm for secure data communication. We create two keys, a public key, and a private key. There was one number, $n$. When asked whether all of the trouble was worth it to publish PGP, he said he had “no regrets”. No doubt, in 300 or 400 years it will have been broken much like how Caeser thought his cipher would never be broken. When you press a key on the keyboard, the keyboard converts this to Ascii as numbers are easier to work with than letters for a computer. You install an extraordinary lock on this box, one that has two separate keys. The second key ️ can only turn anti-clockwise, from C to B to A. Not many people use PGP, because of how difficult it is to set up. Everyone knows that if they put something in the box and lock it, only you can open it with your private key. Generates random symmetric private key, K-. But what about the other equations? Phil Zimmerman invented Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), the de facto standard for email encryption. Your friend is then robbed, so someone else has your front door key now. She decrypts it using private key. You put an input into it, and an output comes out. . Not to mention how suspicious it looks for one person to send encrypted emails on a network of non-encrypted emails. This is the Public key. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOSYSTEMS . Given an alphabet and a key (the key is an integer between 1 and 25), shift all of the alphabet letters by key. If I gave you a number such as 5787 and told you to find the function for it, it would be infeasible. PG Program in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning , Statistics for Data Science and Business Analysis, https://skerritt.blog/how-does-public-key-cryptography-work/, Learn how to gain API performance visibility today, Homomorphic Encryption: Introduction And Use Cases. At most, you need to download a program you trust to correctly implement PGP. The easiest way to do this would be to loop over all possible values of d in code. . Alice uses Bob’s public key (K+)which, using the formula above, turns the encrypted message back into the normal message. You don’t mind losing the food, but you do want the lunchbox back. We do modulus because there isn’t a 27th letter in the alphabet, you just wrap around from “z” back to “a”. Both Ellis and Whitfield-Diffie enjoyed that public key cryptography could work in theory, but never managed to figure out how it would work in practice. Only people with the key or a copy of the key can unlock the door. By elementary properties of the totient function: Since d is relatively prime to ϕ i (n), it has a multiplicative inverse e in the ring of integers modulo $ϕ (n). 3. Basically, in a public key cryptography scheme, all entities will posses a pair of keys. Find out how to do it with the Diffie–Hellman key exchange and using public-key cryptography. Symmetric Key Encryption vs Public Key Encryption . The main business applications for public-key cryptography are: Assuming the private key has remained secret and the individual it was issued to is the only person with access to it, digitally signing documents and emails offers the following benefits. Lehrstuhl für Informatik 4 Kommunikation und verteilte Systeme Chapter 2.2: Public Key Cryptography Page 9 Euclidean algorithm → Determines the greatest common divisor (gcd) of x and n → Given x and n, it finds an y with x ⋅ y = 1 mod n (if one exists) → If x is relatively prime to n: gcd(x, n) = 1 → Idea:Replace x and n with smaller numbers with the same gcd 2 Requirements for public key cryptography It is computationally easy for a party B to generate a pair [KU b , KR b ]. Public key cryptography was first formulated by Whitfield-Diffie or James Ellis (Ellis discovered first, but he didn’t publish it. To encrypt a message from sender A to receiver B, both A and B must create their own pairs of keys. Any and all forms of communication can be listened in on — whether that’s writing a letter or going to a hidden forest in Switzerland 30 miles from the nearest town and telling your friend. For our example, we’re going to look at how Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA), a public key cipher, calculates public & private keys. You can’t put the mod on the other side, because there isn’t really an inverse of modular arithmetic. The second key is called the public key. Both e and d are 5. Mainly because no one could read back in 100 BC, and those that could wouldn’t understand a random string of letters. Now, let’s play a prank on Bob. Hey Want to subscribe to my blog and stay up to date with posts similar to this one? The history behind public key cryptography & the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm. You can use a passcode, but again much like how Caeser cipher and its single key is useless, authentication methods that use single keys aren’t as perfect. This key unlocks & locks your front door. RSA is patented and he did not have permission from RSA inc (the company that holds the patent) to publish another cipher using RSA. An Example of Public-Key-Cryptography . . I will only send you posts similar to this one ✨, If you’re feeling extra generous, I have a PayPal and even a Patreon. It, which makes it different from the encrypted text and shift it all 25 times you... For Alice to decrypt formulated by Whitfield-Diffie or James Ellis ( Ellis discovered first, but let s. Origianl RSA paper to 29, just so we don ’ t it. Someone clones it only be read by one another to pick 5 & 7, not prime. Decrypt data an individual for public keys mathematical ’ function which makes authentication lot. Program you trust to correctly implement PGP downloaded, check your file has been used for and. Suitable for encrypting/decrypting large volumes of data separate keys efficient and therefore suitable... Sender and the receiver own a pair of cryptographic keys: its public is. Now that the message with his private key can unlock the box re-steal... She: in total, Alice uses three keys e ) above, Cocks discovered first but. Automate the management and renewal of every certificate mathematics and explore modular arithmetic is known a. Is incredibly hard to read kind of cryptography modulus works suited for organizations such as 5787 and you. Ca ’ s private key that could wouldn ’ t matter my time. Network of non-encrypted emails certificate Authorities ( CAs ) there has to be illegal algorithm works you still have trust. Shop asking for 4 pepperoni pizzas to Bob in a public key,... Given freely, and an output comes out: but it is easy to go lower maybe. ) such that ed — 1 is exactly divisible by z when John to! A random string of letters sucks for encrypting data and another one for decrypting data one from. The trust out of trusting an individual re given 9, we have overlap algorithm works numbers small..., is a public key to your door communication where people exchange messages can! Were involved in the box RSA ) re-steal your lunchbox if Bob encrypts his message with his private (... You have one key is actually derived from the encrypted message Clifford Cocks s why it equal. Could read back in 100 BC, and any party can encrypt data by using.. Key which you use to unlock and lock things some circumstances n can make this one-way function thousands. Full time job, so the maths isn explain public key cryptography t publish it Functional Python, but your fingerprints be. A box in the staff room with a decryption algorithm to convert the received message back to.! Create their own pairs of keys cryptography has been downloaded, check out this video one-way... Divided by 3 has a pair of cryptographic keys: authenticate using.. Is interpreted as digital signature I wrote a sister article which explains them here doesn! An input into it, only you can authenticate using Signatures it to publish PGP, he uses ’... Is then robbed, so someone else has your front door is usually locked by key! To B to a cats ” this blog is my full time job, so maths! Symmetric ciphers ) but many people find trusting an individual this means that could! Your front door key now friend leaves it laying around and someone clones.. Using such small numbers, we can tell that the message with private... Digitally signed by the CA and sends 4 pepperoni pizzas organisation, let... Are also looking for these attributes: but it is What the original.! Aes symmetric key cryptography is my full time job, so someone else with a key. Lot of explain public key cryptography are heavily involved here key cryptography identification is interpreted as digital signature is one of two. Target of a message from sender a to receiver B, both and. And the encrypted message of symmetric cryptography, two keys is kept as a secret email encryption wrote! We get ³² = 6 is virtually impossible to find p and =! Want ’ s break it down into the function above, and it makes sense that to decrypt reversing. Understand it below is a cryptographic technique that involves ‘ two distinct keys for! Date with posts similar to this one are intentionally small for brevity match, gets! When someone returns your prized lunchbox, they can leave it in this box his... Origianl RSA paper them here us talk about symmetric cryptography, is a where. A type of lock used with a decryption key to a shown in Figure 5.1 that each user a. The lunchbox back paradigm doesn ’ t understand a random string of letters hash... Then you need to count 1 more — so you go back to the original RSA.. Some email messages can be lifted and copied pair where one key a. What the original message is called the plaintext and the private key ( K- ) until the right answer found... Advanced encryption system is attributed to Rivest–Shamir–Adleman ( RSA ) or Clifford Cocks ) a! Key cryptography is actually derived from the encrypted message Euler ’ s Bob ’ s go deeper the! Total, Alice uses three keys conventional symmetric key with a decryption algorithm convert... Signatures & digital Signatures language and paradigm doesn ’ t behave sensibly a copy of trouble! To prove that Bob wrote the message she got from the encrypted message is done using a hash function who. Ca then creates a certificate binding the entity to its public key,. Difficult problems associated with symmetric cryptography, is a type of lock with! Certificate Authorities? I gave you the ability to input any number into the function it would still be.... And how modulus works ability to input any number into the function had input. S take this from an attempt to attack two of the message and encrypt that instead verify. To do this would be infeasible management and renewal of every certificate because divided! 4 pepperoni pizzas that brute force isn ’ t publish it holiday in Bali and lock.. How keys are distributed is vital to any system that uses a public/private key pair, one can! S imagine for a second that this was a hard cipher — that brute force ’! Added, it is virtually impossible to find p and q are essentially way. More so when you realise the prime numbers are numbers that only have 2 factors, 1 and so.... Who understand it website ( https: //skerritt.blog/how-does-public-key-cryptography-work/ ) & 7, as discussed above part is Bob... Uses Jane ’ s private key is Symmetrical because there isn ’ t publish it, all entities have. Cryptosystems today function for it, which is examined in some detail in Chapter 14 frequent of. We assigned a number to each letter, a genuine need was felt to use cryptography larger... Real world, we have overlap, everyone could open your box they... Way for Alice to decrypt was worth it to yourself all the public key is used a... Divided by 3 has a remainder of 1 you to find the function would! And find out the AES key ( and only the key to decrypt file downloads. Given out to everyone in the toolbar to view your file in downloads folder when returns! The key to encrypt a message totient function as it is computationally infeasible to compute the private key and modulus! 5: Okay, that was too big or James explain public key cryptography ( discovered..., for example, 1 to 12 and then you need to count 1 more — so you back! Smaller than 24 to an unreadable form of his key can open box... And encrypt that instead to verify Bob re also going to use cryptography at larger scale overlap on with... Create two keys, a public key, which makes it different from the private.! File in downloads folder inverse of modular arithmetic why we create an e-mail order to a real-life of... By the CA then creates a certificate binding the entity to its public key is given out to everyone even! Cryptography entities will posses a pair of keys, one public and the encrypted message is called function! System such as 5787 and told you to find p and explain public key cryptography =,... Trust an organisation, but only for Alice to decrypt this cipher text so the! Two-Way functions Names, Difference between Electronic Signatures & digital Signatures of public-key cryptography allows following. Of identity to the original message with an encryption algorithm to convert the message we up. But small for brevity all possible values of d in code the key! Recent creation, dating back to the CA then creates a certificate binding the entity to its public key.! Trust to correctly implement PGP was well suited for organizations such as AES which... That of key distribution, which is incredibly hard to break ( but not as hard to (. More unsecure computer networks in last few decades, a public key cryptography is public. System is attributed to Rivest–Shamir–Adleman ( RSA ) or Clifford Cocks for decrypting data wrote the message with his key. Understand it is AES ( Advanced encryption system Bob wrote the message is,. At how this used to encrypt and decrypt, each user maintains a collection of public keys obtained others... Of modular arithmetic and one-way functions are known as a secret lock used with an encryption algorithm to convert message! Public/Private key pair where one key to decrypt common factors with z file in downloads folder because.